The Braze Mobility Blog


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Travel Smartly with Mobility: This Holiday Season, We are Going Places!


Learn all about how you can travel smartly with mobility this holiday season.

Traveling has always been an option for people through various modes of transportation, such as trains, planes, cars, buses, and public transit. In order to travel smartly with mobility, we must first understand what are the things that often stand in the way. Let’s talk about some of the common accessibility challenges for individuals with mobility needs when traveling.

Inclusive facilities:

Facilities around the world are required by law to meet local accessibility standards; however, not all the latest standards meet the actual needs of mobility users sufficiently. While some hotels and motels have wheelchair accessible rooms and bathrooms, as well as accessible parking spaces and entrances, other accommodations may be overlooked. Examples include visual cues for texture, depth, inclination, and elevation changes. Some facilities may lack updated accommodation and inclusion standards, such as wheelchair ramps, elevators, universal signage, or alternative methods of communications (Braille, voice commands, etc.). Refer to reviews, ratings, and pictures of the facilities as second opinions when selecting for the most inclusive facilities to visit.

Mobility traveler-friendly traveling methods:

The mode of transportation itself may pose barriers for individuals who use wheelchairs. Airlines may mishandle wheelchairs, leading to damage. Narrow spaces, like tunnels and tubes from the platform to the plane during boarding and vice versa, can be hard to navigate.

Most traditional escalators are not designed for wheelchair drivers to self navigate. Trips and falls on those escalators are be extremely dangerous. Always use the elevator if possible. And be extremely cautious with taking the escalators in wheelchairs. For even when it seems like the escalators are just wide enough for the device to fit, always remember that your device needs enough leeway to move around as it enters a surface in constant motion.

Mobility-friendly Restrooms:

A picture overview of the tiny common airplane toilet that is too tight for mobility users to navigate and use.

Restrooms on trains and airplanes may require navigating through narrow hallways and have too tight of a space inside for mobility users to move around. Wide-body airplanes tend to be a better option accessibility-wise since they provide more toilet and aisle spaces. Some airlines also have more accommodations than others. Uniform airport designs that lack in accessible signage can also make restroom identification difficult. Navigating crowded areas to reach restrooms can also be challenging.

Mobility device arrangements during travel:

Similar to baggage and luggage, mobility devices need to be stored with care for proper protection when in transit. In fact, scratches and bumps to mobility devices can easily cause more serious function-related damages that can singlehandedly hinder the rest of the trip. Avoiding unwanted surprises, make sure you are aware of the best storage option for your devices in transit as well as the related local regulations ahead of boarding time to make the necessary arrangements for assistance. Consider using tagging technology (e.g. AirTag) to help track your mobility device in the event that it is lost or misplaced in transit.


Emergency exits and evacuation routes can be hard to find in large busy places like airports and train stations. Individual mobility users can face difficulties accessing oxygen masks and inflatable slides during emergencies. Consider traveling during less crowded hours or days for less hassled environments.

Travel smartly with mobility:

  1. Plan in advance: Contact the transit companies for more accessibility-related information so you can make more informed choices on which airline/train/bus to book tickets from.
  2. Label Appropriately: Label mobility devices and associated adaptive devices for careful handling. Use bright colors for attention.
  3. Track your device: Tracking technology can help with locating lost or misplaced mobility devices.
  4. Arrive Earlier: Arriving early is always a good choice when traveling. It gives you more time to navigate the check-ins and baggage areas with ease.
  5. Legislation and Rights: Google local traveling legislation on accessibility and visitor’s rights. Remember to take photos/videos to document the devices’ condition before checking your devices in with third party caretakers during transit.

The above solutions for individual mobility users alone are not sufficient. We firmly believe in the transformative power of collective change. We need to raise awareness of the above challenges faced by mobility travelers nowadays so that everyone can understand the crucial role accessibility plays in making essential transit facilities truly inclusive around the world.

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Safeguarding Wheelchair Users: Unveiling 3 Key Environmental Barriers that Impact the Safe Use of Wheelchairs


In this blog, you will learn how wheelchairs can enrich quality of life as you discover the three most common yet impactful environmental obstacles as well as ways to overcome them. From accessibility options, weather conditions, to population density, we break these factors down thoroughly in relation to mobility safety. Our goal of the Wheelchair Safety Series is to introduce a holistic perspective on how environments influence safety on wheels. This second article in the blog series sheds light on how the following environmental factors may interfere with the safe use of wheelchairs:

  • Accessibility
  • Weather
  • Traffic

Raising awareness about environmental hazards to wheelchair safety helps increase not just the safety of wheelchair users, but also the chance for the public to get involved. We hope that everyone can be a part of a more accessible and mindful shared environment.


The presence of accessibility-related environmental hazards can limit a wheelchair user’s ability to navigate their surroundings safely and independently, hindering their mobility and quality of life. Accessibility of public and private spaces is one major issue. Individual wheelchair users frequent public spaces such as parks, libraries, malls, theaters, healthcare facilities, and grocery stores. If a building has no ramps, elevators, appropriate clearance and size of doorways, and/or visible signs, it prevents wheelchair users from entering as well as impairs their ability to maneuver safely once inside.

Commonly seen challenges of navigating public spaces include and are not limited to maneuvering narrow aisles, backing up and into spaces with lots of traffic and/or fragile items, elevation changes between flooring, and having belongings (such as backpacks, oxygen tanks, or wiring from your adaptive and assistive technological devices) getting caught while maneuvering. 

A computer generated 2-dimensional mid-wheel drive black wheelchair with beige seating beside black text reading 'powered mobility device users' from Edwards and McCluskey, 2010 and Gavin and Dreschnack, 2015. Orange 20% statistic beside a computer generated icon of a red star with 6-points and yellow outline with black text reading 'experienced at least 1 major collision within the past year'. Blue 33% statistic beside a computer generated broken black rectangle with black text reading 'result in damage to mobility device'. Blue 11% statistic beside a computer generated icon of a light blue hospital outline with a red cross with black text reading 'result in hospitalization for injuries due to collision'. Black text reading 'cost of medical bill $25000-$75000 and duration of stay 4-8 weeks long'

Lack of Awareness Leads to Lack of Accessibility

Additionally, cracked or uneven paths, gravel surfaces, and rugged terrains can easily get the wheels stuck, leading to wheelchair accidents. At times, especially in busy cities, we constantly see parked cars or groups of people blocking sidewalk entrances and exits, forcing wheelchair users to take alternative routes that are potentially dangerous. Navigating on the sidewalk is especially a safety concern when curbs are involved. A common fear of wheelchair users is accidentally going over a curb and into oncoming traffic, as this could lead to catastrophic injuries. 

On the other side of the curbs, there are additional factors of risk such as changes in elevation and surface type (e.g., grass, mud, gravel). Tipping or falling into grassy patches can lead to the wheels getting stuck. An injury prevention journal presented a study highlighting wheelchair-related injuries by age. It suggested that over 100,000 injuries lead to ER visits one year. In which 65–80% of injuries related to tips and falls. As you can see, barriers above all deter wheelchair users from accessing and enjoying outdoor spaces, negatively impacting their safety, independence, confidence in their ability to maneuver a wheelchair, and quality of life.


  • Downloading apps that show accessibility rates of a particular location.
  • Additions to wheelchairs mentioned by Sunrise Medical, such as encoders, can help with safe steering of the wheelchair to ensure it stays on the path and direction it was intended to be on, regardless of the environmental hazards that come in the way.
  • If going to a new public place and you need more information about its accessibility, perhaps calling ahead or visiting their ‘contact us’ and/or ‘about us’ section on their website might help plan ahead for your visit. Look for signage that might prepare you about the accessibility of a place ahead of time, for example, parking lots.


In most regions where seasons changing is a yearly ritual, not many are aware of the various challenges that come with each of the four seasons. From summer, fall, winter, to spring, wheelchair users face plenty of seasonal challenges within their indoor and outdoor environments that demand more awareness and attention from the community.

To name a few, there are unclean pathways covered by fall leaves and/or snow. There may cracked terrain with water piled up inside. There are leaves, snow, and water that can hinder the driver’s view and/or depth perception, making it difficult to predict what they are driving themselves into and increasing the likelihood of a bad accident. During winter times, wheelchair users can bump into snow banks. They can easily scrape parts of their wheelchair, and even tip and fall, crashing into snow banks.

Weather changes may impact accessibility of public transportation for individuals using wheelchairs. Uncleared sidewalks near bus stops prevent wheelchair users from boarding the buses. This adds unnecessary cost and stress to wheelchair users just to get around. In places where weather conditions change often, timely maintenance of pathways is a challenge. Failure to do so forces wheelchair users to allocate more funds for alternative transportation such as uber and taxis just to avoid social isolation and carry out routine errands (read more on this topic at inaccessibility of public transportation).


  • Having access to cost-effective accessible taxi services such as Uber and Lyft. Torontonians can check out our blog on what to look out for when trying to book a ride on Accessible Transit in Toronto.
  • Looking for visible signage (‘an icy slope’ or ‘road curves ahead’ or ‘bridge ices over in winter’) to prepare you for safe navigation of your wheelchair can be helpful.
  • Keep up-to-date with wheelchair maintenance. Make sure you complete maintenance of all your assistive devices and your wheelchair ahead of weather changes. This way, your wheelchair, technology, and you, are all ready for safe wheelchair navigation and maneuverability.


Using a wheelchair in a busy environment with lots of cars and people can get hazardous for wheelchair users. Public spaces are generally louder during high traffic hours such as the beginning and end of the day. During those times especially, there are a lot of larger vehicles that tend to reduce visibility and accessibility for everyone, not just individuals who use wheelchairs. Examples include large transportation trucks, large school buses, large public transport buses, and emergency vehicles.

Awareness of surrounding areas is important not just for individuals who use wheelchairs, but the general public as well. Wheelchair users are more vulnerable to accidents in high traffic areas. Automobile drivers may not be paying attention to the road, especially in high traffic areas. This may lead to collisions with wheelchairs.

Let’s talk about what is beyond the typical traffic.

When we say traffic, we often think of cars, buses, and bikes. What we don’t realize is that traffic on the road is not the only concern. Foot traffic on sidewalks can be of concern as well. When there are a lot of people accessing public walkways, maneuvering a wheelchair gets challenging as the user has lot more things they must try to avoid bumping into. To add to that, others sharing public sidewalks need to be mindful of how much space they leave to wheelchair users when using devices such as scooters, strollers, and walkers.

On top of everything mentioned above, the less talked about concept of “sensory traffic” needs to addressed. Intensive vehicular and pedestrian traffic often come with overwhelming sounds and lights as well. Not only must wheelchair users navigate through weather and accessibility related environment factors, they must also do all this under the constant influences of surrounding sensory stimulations and distractions. A sudden sensory input can lead the individual to act abruptly braking out of panic or accelerating in a rush. The individual has to divide their attention between all three traffic types then, vehicular, pedestrian, and sensory: this attention required for long periods of time and to make decisions,  makes it even more difficult for individuals using wheelchairs to be socially active. 


  • You can increase your visibility to others by wearing bright colours, adding LEDs to your wheelchair and parts, hanging bright bags on your wheelchair if you use bags. Check out our blog on Wheelchair Safety Tips for more ideas.
  • Adding sensors, cameras, and mirrors to your wheelchair could warn you when there is a change in your immediate environment. For example, a sensor could notify you if someone drives, runs, or walks past you suddenly. Check out our blog on the Pros and Cons of Visual Aids.
  • Using a white cane could help improve depth perception during changes in elevation so you can prepare ahead of time when maneuvering your wheelchair.

At the end of this blog, we invite you to envision the potential opportunities out there for us to create a more inclusive and supportive environment!  Do check out our previous blog in this Safety Series that talks about the 3 technology-related factors impacting the safe use of wheelchairs: seating, programming and configurations, and drive controls.

References/Citations: Mortenson, W. B., Miller, W. C., & Hardy, T. (2009). Ready to roll? Wheelchair use in residential care. . Disability Health Research network: UBC Okanagan. Xiang, H., Chany, A. M., & Smith, G. A. (2006). Wheelchair related injuries treated in US emergency departments. Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention, 12(1), 8–11. Retrieved from

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Alt Text "A corner of a white wall showing floor boards that have been removed due to wheelchair damage, with pine colour wood exposed under the damage along with the metal corner beam exposed under the damage."

3 Reasons for Accidents with Wheelchairs that Might Surprise You (Technological Factors)


Safety is a prevalent issue related to wheelchair use, with one study highlighting that 55% of wheelchair users reported experiencing at least one collision, and 17% reported experiencing two or more collisions within a three year period. You can read our earlier blog article on the prevalence of wheelchair collisions for additional statistics. Here is a quick view of the consequences of wheelchair collisions and accidents.

A computer generated 2-dimensional mid-wheel drive black wheelchair with beige seating beside black text reading 'powered mobility device users' from Edwards and McCluskey, 2010 and Gavin and Dreschnack, 2015. Orange 20% statistic beside a computer generated icon of a red star with 6-points and yellow outline with black text reading 'experienced at least 1 major collision within the past year'. Blue 33% statistic beside a computer generated broken black rectangle with black text reading 'result in damage to mobility device'. Blue 11% statistic beside a computer generated icon of a light blue hospital outline with a red cross with black text reading 'result in hospitalization for injuries due to collision'. Black text reading 'cost of medical bill $25000-$75000 and duration of stay 4-8 weeks long'
Computer generated mustard yellow and sage green background with black text title reading 'The impact of powered wheelchair accidents to residential institutions' by Mortenson et al. 2005. 2-dimensional computer generated icon of beige house with red door and roof beside orange text reading '82 powered wheelchair users and black text reading '142 residents' 2-dimensional computer generated icon of tan brown bandaid surrounded by a blue circle beside black text 'personal injuries involving worker's compensation' 2-dimensional computer generated icon of grey rectangle with blue cracks throughout surrounded by a blue circle beside black text reading 'damage to property 16 incidents of property damage within 1 year' 2-dimensional computer generated icon front view of red car with yellow lights and black wheels' surrounded by a blue circle beside black text reading 'automobile accidents'

So why is it that individuals who have demonstrated their abilities sufficiently enough to be prescribed a wheelchair experience these challenges? At the other end, is it really the case that individuals who are currently being excluded from powered (motorized/electric) mobility device use are too “unsafe” to drive? As a researcher mainly working with individuals with cognitive impairment, I knew there was little research that offered insights into the skills required to use a powered wheelchair. There is even less research to support the misconception that those with cognitive impairment cannot use or learn how to use a powered wheelchair. Despite this, individuals, specifically with cognitive impairment, are given few opportunities to trial and learn how to use a powered wheelchair.

How can we be sure that we are giving everyone a fair chance at independent mobility? In addition, are we viewing mobility as not just a way to get from point A to point B, but also as a necessary tool for learning and development in general.

7 years ago, when I had just started my company Braze Mobility, I walked into the home of a potential client, Wade Watts, and was taken aback by the amount of damage in his home. While I had seen safety often being the reason cited for long-term care residents being denied access to powered wheelchairs, I was not aware of the prevalence of accidents in the community. Despite the fact that Wade is skilled enough to be able to navigate even the most challenging environments, I noticed baseboards had been ripped off many of his walls. He even had to remove a couple of doors because of the damage to his doorways.

Alt Text "A corner of a white wall showing floor boards that have been removed due to wheelchair damage, with pine colour wood exposed under the damage along with the metal corner beam exposed under the damage."
Baseboard damage caused by powered wheelchair

In fact the more wheelchair users I spoke to, the more I realized how commonplace property and wheelchair damage are. One of my clients, Herman Witlox, is another wheelchair user who is extremely skilled at using his device, and explains “I can turn [my wheelchair] through a few millimeters of clearance…I can [drive] up two 2 by 4s into the side of the vehicle – that’s a pretty narrow path to keep on course”. Despite this, he shared that

“2 or 3 dents in the wall a day [was] normal. I just [learned] to live with it”.

By Herman Witlox

Through my decade-plus-long research in the mobility space and more than 7 years of providing mobility solutions, I have witnessed a plethora of barriers in accessing and maintaining safe and independent mobility. Exploring these barriers in depth for each individual user can ensure that we identify solutions that address their specific needs.

"A beige wall, pine colour wood floor, with a brown wood door, floor board, and doorway frame, showing wheelchair damage horizontal scrapes on the wall, floor board, door frame, and door"
Doorway damage caused by collision with powered wheelchair

When I get an inquiry from a therapist or a caregiver about a client who is “driving into things” and I ask the question “why?”, the reasons are often unclear or unknown. I have heard the phrase “they are just a terrible wheelchair driver”, many times from frustrated spouses or other family members who have had to pay for all the damage. However, in my experience, this reason is rarely true.

Most non-wheelchair users, including some therapists that prescribe the technology, don’t realize that operating a wheelchair, especially a powered one, can be extremely difficult. In this blog series, we break down the challenges in 3 areas: technology, environment, and client. By examining each of these individual areas, we aim to provide a more holistic view of safety-related pain points and barriers in wheelchair use. In this first article in the blog series, we highlight factors that are technology-specific.


A graphic illustration of a misaligned, skewed spine of the wheelchair user as a result of improper seating.
Spine misalignment while seating in a wheelchair

Seating is of utmost importance in allowing the user to navigate effectively and comfortably. An individual can experience pain with wheelchair use, independent of their current diagnosis and functioning. When a comfortable, dynamic (movable) seating option is available and positioned correctly for the user, it can reduce the user’s pain by avoiding sliding, slipping, and sudden movements that can all cause injury. In addition, seating adjustments can improve safe and efficient operation of the wheelchair by ensuring that the drive control (the mechanism used to operate a powered wheelchair) is visible and within reach. A RESNA position paper provides insight on the seating-related challenges faced by wheelchair users and associated recommendations. Permobil provides a helpful seating and positioning guide. Additionally, Michelle Lange provides insight into some factors that come into play when considering seating in this Decision Making Tree

Even when an optimal seating configuration is selected, the backrest of the wheelchair typically creates a massive “blind spot”. If you have never used a wheelchair and don’t believe me, try sitting in a regular office chair and try to look at the floor behind you (without turning the chair or the seat if you’re in a swivel chair). This is challenging if not impossible for just about anyone, regardless of your upper body mobility. So, it is not surprising that most wheelchair users cannot easily see what’s behind them.

Braze Blind Spot Sensors can be used as a tool to enhance spatial awareness in these blind spots around the wheelchair, and have helped clients like Wade, Herman and hundreds of other wheelchair users. In a recently published 3rd-party peer-reviewed study where existing powered wheelchair users were asked to detect objects in the rear using their standard methods (such as shoulder-checking), the participants detected low stationary (static) obstacles with only 44% accuracy. When participants used the Braze Blind Spot Sensors, their accuracy in detecting these obstacles increased significantly to 96% and they were able to do so in significantly less time. The sensors significantly increased the users’ accuracy in other scenarios as well including detection of higher and moving (dynamic) obstacles in the rear.

"Blue title reading 'Low Static Obstacle with computer generated 2-dimensional side view of women wearing an orange tank top, black pants, and black shoes in a blue and grey power wheelchair with black wheels. Computer generated orange statistical data inside a circular orange-grey arrow beside orange text reading '96% accuracy' beside 'Braze Sensors Time 2.6 sec' and blue statistical data inside circular blue-grey arrow beside blue text reading '44% accuracy' beside 'Baseline Time 7.1 sec'

Power Wheelchairs Programming and Configurations

Sideview of a powered wheelchair driver driving on a downhill sidewalk.
Powered wheelchair driving down a sidewalk

Powered wheelchairs can reach relatively high speeds, and if users are not familiar with their speed and acceleration capabilities, they may lose control, leading to collisions or tipping over. Rapid acceleration or sudden stops can catch users off guard and result in accidents, as the user’s entire body or parts of their body can make a jerk-like movement because of this change in speed. Appropriate adjustments can be programmed by a wheelchair provider or manufacturer rep in collaboration with the therapist to ensure user needs are met. The wheelchairjunkie provides information on various programming aspects such as speed of acceleration, deceleration, and turning, and how they impact the powered wheelchair driving experience.

The rear-end view of a wheelchair where there is medical equipment of an oxygen ventilator machine that is hanging from its back, hindering the driver's rear visibility.
Rear visibility hindered by medical equipment
The rear-end view of a wheelchair where there are accessories of an orange backpack and a black and neon yellow cane that are hanging from its back, hindering the driver's rear visibility.
Rear visibility hindered by accessories

In addition, certain wheelchair configurations can compromise the user’s rear, peripheral, and even front visibility. For example, a user who needs to be in a tilted position while driving will typically have an altered field-of-view that limits their ability to see objects that are lower to the ground. Accessories like oxygen tanks, backpacks, custom leg and footrests, and communication devices that increase the space taken up by the wheelchair can also block the user’s view of obstacles in their environment, making them more likely to have accidents. Bariatric wheelchairs (engineered with a heavier weight capacity and broader seats than standard wheelchairs) can pose additional challenges due to wider wheelchair dimensions, making navigation in tight spaces particularly challenging. Wheel drive configurations (front-, mid- and rear-wheel) can also have an impact on maneuverability, as explained in this article by Permobil. For example, certain types of wheel drive configurations are better for textured pathways while others are better in navigating tighter spaces.

Braze Blind Spot Sensors have helped clients in all of the above scenarios by providing feedback regarding the location and proximity of objects in the environment, thereby increasing spatial awareness in areas that are not directly visible to the client. They can also help new wheelchair users learn the extremities of their wheelchair as they figure out how to maneuver in various spaces with their wheel drive configuration.

Drive Controls

Powered wheelchairs are typically driven using a joystick. However, some users might be unable to operate a wheelchair with a joystick and require the use of “alternative drive/access controls” or “specialty control interfaces”. Alternative drive controls allow a user to control and drive the wheelchair without a joystick, using other parts of the body such as the chin, tongue, mouth, for example. Numotion provides some details of these alternative drive controls. It might be necessary to trial various drive controls in order to find the best fit for the client that allows them to operate a powered wheelchair safely.  Michelle Lange provides decision-making trees for joystick and non-joystick driving methods. Here is another resource from mo-vis that sheds light on how to find a good fit between the user and drive controls. 

A wheelchair driver squeezing through a narrow doorway with very little clearance on both sides.
Wheelchair squeezing through narrow doorway

While alternative drive controls provide increased opportunities for independent mobility, devices such as head arrays, sip and puffs, and eye gaze require the user to face forward while driving, potentially limiting their spatial awareness. I once saw a client who is a skilled head array user, but certain environments required her to navigate doorways backwards. As she would try to back up through the door and shoulder-check to make sure she was centered, she would inadvertently activate her head array (which detected her head movements as designed) and zig zag through the doorway hitting the sides multiple times.

Braze Blind Spot Sensors can be used in conjunction with alternative drive controls to enhance spatial awareness of obstacles around the wheelchair. In addition, the multi-modal alerts (visual, audio, and vibration) can be used by clients to help center themselves in tight spaces like doorways and elevators to improve their navigation skills, even when moving backwards. This feature can greatly improve powered wheelchair usability, considering 40% of powered wheelchair users in a study reported difficulty with steering tasks, especially while navigating through doorways and elevators.

"Computer generated pale yellow background on left side with orange text statistic reading '40%' and black text reading 'of clinician's patients or clients who use powered wheelchair have difficult with steering tasks' by Fehr, Langbein, & Skarr's (2002) above a 2-dimensional icon of joystick with black circle, pine rod, and beige base beside a red 'X'. Mint green background on right side with an icon of a black outline side-view wheelchair above blue text statistic reading '61-91%' and black text reading 'of wheelchair users predicted to benefit from "Smart Wheelchairs" by Simpson (2008)"


Challenges related to seating, programming/configurations, and drive controls can be addressed in various ways, including some of the suggestions in the references provided. It can be helpful to discuss these with the wheelchair provider and therapist when getting a new wheelchair in order to facilitate a better fit between these factors and the user. Some useful considerations when purchasing a new powered wheelchair can be found in our earlier blog article.

Braze Blind Spot Sensors are helpful smart wheelchair technology to help mitigate some of the challenges related to spatial awareness that are often exacerbated by seating, wheelchair configurations/accessories and drive controls.

This blog is related to challenges in wheelchair operation that relate specifically to the wheelchair user’s technology. There are also factors related to the environment and the user that can present safety issues, but I will go over these in the next articles.


Nilsson, L., & Kenyon, L. (2022). Assessment and Intervention for Tool-Use in Learning Powered Mobility Intervention: A Focus on Tyro Learners. Disabilities, 2(2), 304–316. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Lange, M. L., Crane, B., Diamond, F. J., Eason, S., Presperin Pedersen, J., & Peek, G. (2021). RESNA position on the application of dynamic seating. Assistive technology : the official journal of RESNA, 1–11. Advance online publication.

Pellichero, A., Best, K. L., Routhier, F., Viswanathan, P., Wang, R. H., & Miller, W. C. (2021). Blind spot sensor systems for power wheelchairs: obstacle detection accuracy, cognitive task load, and perceived usefulness among older adults. Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology, 1–9. Advance online publication.

Mortenson, W. B., Miller, W. C., & Hardy, T. (2009). Ready to roll? Wheelchair use in residential care. . Disability Health Research network: UBC Okanagan.,%2C%20and%20rear%2Dwheel%20drive.,is%20attached%20to%20your%20wheelchair.

Fehr, L., Langbein, W. E., & Skaar, S. B. (2000). Adequacy of power wheelchairs

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